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Phonics and reading schemes

Communication and language

Listening and attention

Children listen attentively in a range of situations. They listen to stories, accurately anticipating key events and respond to what they hear with relevant comments, questions or actions. They give their attention to what others say and respond appropriately, while engaged in another activity.


Children follow instructions involving several ideas or actions. They answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions about their experiences and in response to stories or events.


Children express themselves effectively, showing awareness of listeners’ needs. They use past, present and future forms accurately when talking about events that have happened or are to happen in the future. They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events.

Physical development

This involves providing opportunities for pupils to be active and interactive, and to develop their co-ordination, control, and movement. Pupils must also be helped to understand the importance of physical activity, and to make healthy choices in relation to food.

Personal, social and emotional development

This involves helping pupils to:

  • develop a positive sense of themselves and others

  • form positive relationships and develop respect for others

  • develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings

  •  understand appropriate behaviour in groups

  • have confidence in their own abilities

Specific areas of learning and their associated ELGs


This involves encouraging pupils to read and write, both through listening to others reading, and being encouraged to begin to read and write themselves. Pupils must be given access to a wide range of reading materials for example books, poems, and other written materials to ignite their interest.


This involves providing pupils with opportunities to:

  • practise and improve their skills in counting numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems

  • describe shapes, spaces, and measures

Understanding of the world

This involves guiding pupils to make sense of their physical world and their community through opportunities to explore, observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment.

Characteristics of effective learning

Gives you information about how your child is learning. It’s about the processes they use to learn rather than outcomes

  • Playing and learning

  • Active learning

  • Creating and critical thinking

Playing and exploring – engagement

  • Finding out and exploring

  • Playing with what they know

  • Being willing to ‘have a go’

Active learning – motivation

  • Being involved and concentrating

  • Keeping trying

  • Enjoying achieving what they set out to do

Creating and thinking critically - thinking

  • Having their own ideas

  • Making links

  • Choosing ways to do things

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